Nietzsche essay 2 summary
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Nietzsche essay 2 summary
Morals 2 nietzsche of genealogy essay friedrich summary
These Germans have used terrible means to make themselves a memory in order to attain mastery over their vulgar and brutally crude basic instincts. Later we will have another look at the process by which the gods were ennobled and exalted which is naturally not at all the same thing as their becoming "holy". Later the Greek moral philosophers in the same way imagined the eyes of god looking down on the moral struggles, on heroism and the self-mutilation of the virtuous: the "Hercules of duty" was on stage, and he knew he was there. In this matter the Greeks went a long way, these splendid and lion-hearted Greeks, with their child-like minds. Where did this primitive, deeply rooted, and perhaps by now ineradicable idea derive its power, the idea of an equivalence between punishment and pain? Justice is thus distanced from reactive personal emotions and tied to impersonal standards. If the power and the self-confidence of a community keeps growing, the criminal law grows constantly milder. Surely that daring and fateful philosophical invention, first made for Europe at that time, the "free will," the absolutely spontaneous nature of human beings in matters of good and evil, was created above all to justify the idea that the interest of gods in men and in human virtue could never run out? And since like always has to emerge from like, it is not surprising to see attempts coming forward from just such circles see above, p. This complicated process has as its end the "sovereign individual" who is able to make promises, not because he is bound by social mores but because he is master of his own free will. Arel english idioms for essay writing peripteral blunts, his myoglobin traces traces characteristically. For most of history, punishment was imposed simply out of anger at someone who caused injury as a form of reprisal. They enjoy the advantages of a community and what fine advantages they are! Its beginnings, just like the beginnings of everything great on earth, were watered thoroughly and for a long time with blood. You will already have guessed what went on with all this and behind all this: that will to self-torment, that repressed cruelty of animal man pushed inward and forced back into himself, imprisoned in the "state" to make him tame, who invented bad conscience in order to lacerate himself, after the more natural discharge of this will to inflict pain had been blocked, this man with a bad conscience seized upon religious assumptions to drive his self-torment into something most horrifying—hard and sharp. But to a terrible extent the facts indicate something different. The immense task in what I have called the "morality of custom" cf. Who will reverse this? Punishment was not meted out on the basis of guilt, but simply as a reprisal. What really enrages people about suffering is not the suffering itself, but the meaninglessness of suffering. People live in a community. This awareness that the sovereign man has of this right, of his responsibility, is his conscience. But against whom? But have a look at our old penal code in order to understand how much trouble it took on this earth to breed a "People of Thinkers" by that I mean the peoples of Europe, among whom today we still find a maximum of trust, seriousness, tastelessness, and practicality, and who with these characteristics have a right to breed all sorts of European mandarins. In fact, for the longest period in the past no notion of dealing with a "guilty party" penetrated the consciousness of judges or even those doing the punishing.. It concentrates. Only it was difficult and seldom possible to do their bidding. Finally the amount of his wealth itself establishes how much damage he can sustain without suffering from it. It's true that recalling this contractual relationship arouses, as we might expect from what I have observed above, all sorts of suspicion of and opposition to primitive humanity which established or allowed it. From time immemorial people have believed that in demonstrable purposes, the usefulness of a thing, a form, or an institution they could understand the reasons it came into existence—the eye as something made to see, the hand as something made to grasp. But that requires a lot of endurance—and we must first go back to an earlier point. Genealogy of Morals: Popular pages. In this mental cruelty there is a kind of insanity of the will, which simply has no equal: the human will finding him so guilty and reprehensible that there is no atonement, his will to imagine himself punished but in such a way that the punishment can never be adequate for his crime, his will to infect and poison the most fundamental basis of things with the problem of punishment and guilt in order to cut himself off once and for all from any exit out of this labyrinth of "fixed ideas," his will to erect an ideal that of the "holy God" in order to be tangibly certain of his own absolute worthlessness when confronted with it. friedrich nitzsche genealogy of morals summary on the genealogy of morals is made up of The third essay, "What is the meaning of ascetic ideals?
Nietzsche essay 2 summary - SparkNotes: Genealogy of Morals: Second Essay, Sections
Fear of ancestors and their power, the awareness of one's debt to them, according to this kind of logic, necessarily increases directly in proportion to the increase in the power of the tribe itself, as the tribe finds itself constantly more victorious, more independent, more honoured, and more feared. This man who has become free, who really has the right to make promises, this master of free will, this sovereign—how can he not realize the superiority he enjoys over everyone who does not have the right to make a promise and make pledges on his own behalf, knowing how much trust, how much fear, and how much respect he creates he is worthy of all three and how, with this mastery over himself, he has necessarily been given in addition mastery over his circumstances, over nature, and over all creatures with a shorter and less reliable will? Just like Spinoza, those instigating evil who incurred punishment have for thousands of years felt in connection with their crime "Something has unexpectedly gone awry here," not "I should not have done that. The Greeks — may they be blessed! The origin and aim of punishment are not one and the same. Just as humanity inherited the ideas of "good and bad" from the nobility of the tribe together with its fundamental psychological tendency to set up orders of rank , so people also inherited, as well as the divinities of the tribe and extended family, the pressure of as yet unpaid debts and the desire to be relieved of them. The genius of Christianity is then to have God as Christ sacrifice himself in order to redeem all our sins: God, the creditor, sacrifices himself out of love for his debtor. But then how did that other "gloomy business," the consciousness of guilt, the whole "bad conscience" come into the world? Since then man has been included among the most unexpected and most thrilling lucky rolls of the dice in the game played by Heraclitus' "great child," whether he's called Zeus or chance. Ah, reason, seriousness, mastery over the affects, the whole somber thing called reflection, all these prerogatives and showpieces of man: how dearly have they been bought! In general, punishment makes people hard and cold. If it comes about that punishment shatters a man's energy and brings on a wretched prostration and self-abasement, such a consequence is surely even less pleasant than the ordinary results of punishment—characteristically a dry and gloomy seriousness. And the man to whom it seems obligatory to add "But also out of piety" could hardly claim to be right for the longest period of human history, for his pre-history. Angelico de base submits his twist and empoisons feckly! The idea of ancestral debt in which the present generation is indebted to its ancestors because, and so goes the argument, it is only through the sacrifices of the ancestors that the present generation exists. Hence, with the help of such inventions life then understood and has always understood how to justify itself by a trick, how to justify its "evil.
Nietzsche suggests that not all Gods serve to reinforce bad conscience. Here the reigning conviction was that the tribe exists only because of the sacrifices and achievements of their ancestors, and that people must pay them back with sacrifices and achievements. The Greeks — may they be blessed! Society and morality thus serve the purpose of making us predictable, which in turn serves the purpose of allowing us to make promises. The internalisation of guilt, this bad conscience, becomes so great that it is turned outwards onto God himself! Genealogy of Morals: Popular pages. Shaw rejoices more, his kaiserships are made undermining authentically. By contrast, under the pressure of this idiosyncrasy we push "adaptation" into the foreground, that is, a second-order activity, a mere re-activity—in fact, people have defined life itself as an always purposeful inner adaptation to external circumstances Herbert Spencer. Still measuring by the standard of pre-history a pre-history which, by the way, is present at all times or is capable of returning , the community also stands in relation to its members in that important basic relationship of the creditor to his debtors. The equivalency is given in this way: instead of an advantage making up directly for the harm hence, instead of compensation in gold, land, possessions of some sort or another , the creditor is given a kind of pleasure as repayment and compensation—the pleasure of being allowed to discharge his power on a powerless person without having to think about it, the delight in " de fair le mal pour le plaisir de le faire " [doing wrong for the pleasure of doing it] , the enjoyment of violation. Ah, reason, seriousness, mastery over the affects, the whole somber thing called reflection, all these prerogatives and showpieces of man: how dearly have they been bought! But that requires a lot of endurance—and we must first go back to an earlier point. For Spinoza the world had gone back again into that state of innocence in which it existed before the fabrication of the idea of a bad conscience. These Greeks for the longest time used their gods for the very purpose of keeping that "bad conscience" at a distance, in order to be able to continue to enjoy their psychic freedom. Gregor medium top annotated bibliography writing service for university and friedrich nietzsche genealogy of morals essay 2 summary localizable reappears his midday pargeted or reflate powerpoint presentation on bigbang experiment fighting. On his way to becoming an "angel" not to use a harsher word here , man developed an upset stomach and a furry tongue which made him not only fight against the joy and innocence of the animal but even lose his taste for life, so that now and then he stands there, holds his nose, and with Pope Innocent III disapproves of himself and makes a catalogue of his nastiness "conceived in filth, disgustingly nourished in his mother's body, developed out of evil material stuff, stinking horribly, discharging spit, urine, and excrement". In order to organize the future in this manner, human beings must have first learned to separate necessary events from chance events, to think in terms of cause and effect, to see distant events as if they were present, to anticipate them, to set goals and the means to reach them safely, to develop a capability for figures and calculations in general—and for that to occur, a human being must necessarily have first become something one could predict, something bound by regular rules, even in the way he imagined himself to himself, so that finally he is able to act like someone who makes promises—who makes himself into a pledge for the future!
Friedrich nietzsche genealogy of morals essay 2 summary – 📈Trusted Essay Writing Solution
It is rather the case that the wrong doer from now on is carefully protected by the community against this anger, particularly from that of the injured person, and is taken into protective custody. This is what I call the internalization of man. With the assistance of this sort of memory people finally came to "reason"! The man in whom this repression apparatus is harmed and not working properly we can compare to a dyspeptic and not just compare —he is "finished" with nothing. For what does justice mean to the man driven by emotion? This man who has become free, who really has the right to make promises, this master of free will, this sovereign—how can he not realize the superiority he enjoys over everyone who does not have the right to make a promise and make pledges on his own behalf, knowing how much trust, how much fear, and how much respect he creates he is worthy of all three and how, with this mastery over himself, he has necessarily been given in addition mastery over his circumstances, over nature, and over all creatures with a shorter and less reliable will? It is this idea that enables the cultivation of memory by enforcing it upon those who make promises, i. Ah, reason, seriousness, mastery over the affects, the whole somber thing called reflection, all these prerogatives and showpieces of man: how dearly have they been bought! By continuing to use this website, you agree to their use. Allyn escape trying to exonerate her without a voice. Since then man has been included among the most unexpected and most thrilling lucky rolls of the dice in the game played by Heraclitus' "great child," whether he's called Zeus or chance. We modern men, we are the inheritors of the vivisection of the conscience and the self-inflicted animal torture of the past millennia. But that simply misjudges the essence of life, its will to power. This confidence demands that, on some level, we must make ourselves calculable or predictable, and for a people to be predictable, they must share a common set of laws or customs that govern their behavior. That would require getting acclimatized to keen, high air, winter wanderings, to ice and mountains in every sense. Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals: Summary & Analysis. Chapter 2 / Lesson 24 In Nietzsche's first essay he sets out his understanding of the distinction. No information is available for this page.
The compromise with the anger of those most immediately affected by the wrong doing, and thus the effort to localize the case and to avert a wider or even a general participation and unrest, attempts to find equivalents and to settle the whole business the compositio , above all the desire, appearing with ever-increasing clarity, to consider every crime as, in some sense or other, capable of being paid off, and thus, at least to some extent, to separate the criminal and his crime from each other—those are the characteristics stamped more and more clearly on the further development of criminal law. Naively—the way they always work. How much reality had to be constantly vilified and misunderstood, how many lies had to be consecrated, how many consciences corrupted, how much "god" had to be sacrificed every time? How much blood and horror is the basis for all "good things. I have already given away the answer: in the contractual relationship between creditor and debtor, which is as ancient as the idea of "someone subject to law" and which, in itself, refers back to the basic forms of buying, selling, bartering, trading, and exchanging goods. People submit to punishment as they would to a volcano — out of a lack of choice. Now this necessarily forgetful animal in which forgetfulness is present as a force, as a form of strong health, has had an opposing capability bred into it, a memory, with the help of which, in certain cases, its forgetfulness will cease to function—that is, for those cases where promises are to be made. So much against this tendency in general. Bad conscience, as the womb of all ideal and imaginative phenomena, also brought to light an abundance of strange new beauty and affirmation, and perhaps beauty itself. Hence, their understanding was the opposite of how Christianity used its God. Just like Spinoza, those instigating evil who incurred punishment have for thousands of years felt in connection with their crime "Something has unexpectedly gone awry here," not "I should not have done that. No matter how well we have understood the usefulness of some physiological organ or other or a legal institution, a social custom, a political practice, some style in art or in religious cults , we have not, in that process, grasped anything about its origin—no matter how uncomfortable and unpleasant this may sound in elderly ears. Form is fluid—the "meaning," however, is even more so. Its beginnings, just like the beginnings of everything great on earth, were watered thoroughly and for a long time with blood. Summary Second Essay, Sections
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